COMPUTER BASIC ELEMENTS
These components are interconnected in some fashion to achieve the main function of the computer, which is to execute programs. Thus, there are four main structural elements, as follows:
- Processor: Controls the operation of the computer and performs its data processing functions. When there is only one processor, it is often referred to as the central processing unit (CPU). basic computer elements
- Main memory: Stores data and programs. This memory is typically volatile; it is also referred to as real memory, or primary memory.
- Input/output modules: Move data between the computer and its external environment. The external environment consists of a variety of external devices, including secondary memory devices, communications equipment, and terminals.
- System interconnection: some structure and mechanisms that provide for communication among processors, main memory, and Input/output modules. basic computer elements
Depicts these top-level components. The processor is typically in control. One of its functions is to exchange data with memory. For this purpose, it typically makes use of two internal (to the processor) registers; a memory address register (MAR), which specifies the address in memkory for the next read or write; and a memory buffer register (MBR), which cokntains the data to be written into memory, or which receives the data read from memory. An input/output buffer register (I/OBR) is used for the exchange of data between an input/output module and the processor.
A memory module consists of set of locations defined by sequentially numbered addresses. Each location caontains a binary number that can be3 interpreted as either an instruction or data. An input/ output module transfers data from external devices to processor and memory, and vice versa. It contains internal buffers ofr temporarily holding these data until they can be sent on.